Apache > Hadoop > Core

Archives Guide

What are Hadoop archives?

Hadoop archives are special format archives. A Hadoop archive maps to a file system directory. A Hadoop archive always has a *.har extension. A Hadoop archive directory contains metadata (in the form of _index and _masterindex) and data (part-*) files. The _index file contains the name of the files that are part of the archive and the location within the part files.

How to create an archive?

Usage: hadoop archive -archiveName name <src>* <dest>

-archiveName is the name of the archive you would like to create. An example would be foo.har. The name should have a *.har extension. The inputs are file system pathnames which work as usual with regular expressions. The destination directory would contain the archive. Note that this is a Map/Reduce job that creates the archives. You would need a map reduce cluster to run this. The following is an example:

hadoop archive -archiveName foo.har /user/hadoop/dir1 /user/hadoop/dir2 /user/zoo/

In the above example /user/hadoop/dir1 and /user/hadoop/dir2 will be archived in the following file system directory -- /user/zoo/foo.har. The sources are not changed or removed when an archive is created.

How to look up files in archives?

The archive exposes itself as a file system layer. So all the fs shell commands in the archives work but with a different URI. Also, note that archives are immutable. So, rename's, deletes and creates return an error. URI for Hadoop Archives is


If no scheme is provided it assumes the underlying filesystem. In that case the URI would look like


Here is an example of archive. The input to the archives is /dir. The directory dir contains files filea, fileb. To archive /dir to /user/hadoop/foo.har, the command is

hadoop archive -archiveName foo.har /dir /user/hadoop

To get file listing for files in the created archive

hadoop dfs -lsr har:///user/hadoop/foo.har

To cat filea in archive -

hadoop dfs -cat har:///user/hadoop/foo.har/dir/filea